The concept of human rights is based on the premise that no human being should be denied the right to exist. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights establishes rights that apply to all people, regardless of race, religion, or nationality. These rights are not culturally or ethnically specific, and therefore the international community must treat all people equally and fairly.
A key goal of the UDHR is to protect human life and dignity. This aims to protect all citizens from suffering and exploitation. The United Nations Charter is a statement of this foundational belief, stating the overarching aim of the organization: to save future generations from the scourge of war. The Charter also reaffirms the importance of fundamental human rights, including the dignity of every human person and equal rights for men and women.
The concept of human rights was first advanced by John Locke, an English philosopher who believed that people should be able to have certain freedoms. This idea became widely accepted and was incorporated into the constitutions of many countries. After World War II, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted, establishing a common understanding of human rights. It also established a relationship between governments and their citizens.
Some regions of the world have established their own human rights institutions. For example, there are regional human rights bodies in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. These regions have generally ratified major human rights conventions and treaties. By ratifying these instruments, a nation demonstrates their commitment to the principles and values of these treaties.
While human rights are universal and inalienable, they can also be denied or suspended by the state. For example, a government can suspend a criminal’s liberty, and curfews can restrict the freedom of movement. In addition, some human rights are interdependent. If one person is denied one right, it will not benefit all of them.
This view of human rights as a universal norm is attractive, but it comes with serious problems. In the past few decades, international acceptance of human rights has grown rapidly. Human rights treaties and declarations are intended to change existing norms. However, if these instruments are merely political, they will often be rejected.
Some philosophers, like Henry Shue, have suggested that human rights be limited to the protection and freedom of the most important goods or protections. Such a view places more emphasis on avoiding the worst, and achieving the best. A limited list of human rights is more attainable. So, the basic idea of human rights is to promote the good of humanity.
Griffin has developed an alternative view of human rights. While he does not share Gewirth’s goal of logical inescapability, Griffin has acknowledged that human rights are grounded in “generic” agency. In Griffin’s view, human rights are grounded in practical considerations of society and human nature. This approach is unlikely to produce effective barriers to their proliferation and a sharp distinction between human rights and moral norms. However, he acknowledges the “generative” capacities of normative agency.