The term citizen generally refers to an individual with certain rights and responsibilities, especially when they are a resident of a country. It can also refer to a person who resides in a given country or a certain place, although this doesn’t necessarily entitle an individual to certain social security benefits or a state pension. In the Middle Ages, the term citizen was mainly associated with cities and upper-middle class folk, as titles such as burgher and grand burgher denoted political affiliation and membership in the mercantile class, but the concept was generally applied to anyone of respectable means.
The liberal concept of citizenship is a political ideal, influenced by the Roman Empire and early modern reflections on Roman law. As the Roman Empire expanded, it extended citizenship rights to conquered people. Citizenship amounted to protection from the law and participation in the making of laws. As citizenship became a legal status, it was no longer considered a political office, but rather a membership in a community of shared law. Citizenship also implies a person’s rights and responsibilities as a member of a political community, which may not be territorial.
The Citizen app is similar to police scanner apps, but it opens up the emergency response system to the public. The app monitors 911 communications using radio antennas installed in major cities. Citizen teams screen the communications and then create short alerts that ping people within a quarter mile of the incident. This app is available for iOS and Android devices and covers 22 cities. It can also be used by police and fire departments. The app is free to download and uses open source code.
The app works in the same way as a police scanner, letting users report crimes or suspicious events. It can even alert users to police helicopter activity, which means that citizens can see if there is an incident nearby. Users can even upload photos and videos of dangerous situations. However, Citizen has faced criticism for encouraging vigilantism, and has been criticized for fostering racism and paranoia. So, despite the benefits of Citizen, people should use caution while using the app.
The current debate about citizenship has its roots in concerns about cohesion. However, it has become an obstacle to individuals achieving their desired legal status. In Bosniak (2006), citizenship and territorial scope were argued as the reasons behind the current debate. As a result, a person may be a citizen of one country but live in another country. The citizenship of an individual, however, has different implications in terms of policy. Among other things, citizenship has a wide range of social and economic implications.
Citizenship is not granted to all who wish to become a U.S. citizen. Citizenship by family, referred to as jus sanguinis, is granted based on ancestry, and is related to the concept of a nation state in Europe. It is possible to become a citizen if one has two citizens. Those who wish to apply for citizenship must have lived in the United States for at least 30 months.