Civilian oversight systems take many forms, depending on community goals and investment. Some are hybrids, while others focus on specific functions and do not conduct independent investigations. Here are four common forms of civilian oversight. Read on to learn more about each one. Then, use the following checklist to design your civilian oversight system. What are the main features of a civilian oversight system? How does it differ from a police oversight system? And what should civilian oversight agencies include?
The military definition of a civilian includes those not involved in the armed forces. The definition is often vague, but in principle, any person who does not participate in hostilities is a civilian. The military manual for Colombia, for example, describes civilians as persons who do not participate in hostilities. It does not mention armed opposition groups, however, as it is unclear whether they are considered combatants or not. If you participate in a hostilities as a civilian, your participation in the conflict may be deemed a crime under national law. A civilian may be subject to national law for participating in a war, but a civilian should have a fair trial.
In case of hostilities, the protection of civilian hospitals shall not be withdrawn unless the hospital is committing acts harmful to the enemy. This may occur, for example, when the hospital contains small arms and ammunition from the combatants. Moreover, protection of civilian hospitals must be guaranteed even if they are inside a hospital zone. However, in some circumstances, a hospital is also a civilian zone. This includes civilians who do not participate in hostilities and do not do military work.
The protection of civilians must be assured in occupied territories. Relief societies must provide the necessary facilities for protected persons to apply for assistance. Furthermore, the Protecting Power must not transfer parts of its civilian population into the territory it occupies. Further, a non-military organization must ensure that the civilian population is not deprived of vital public services or facilities, and distribute aid and organize rescues. These are the basic requirements for humanitarian assistance. This definition of civil assistance requires that the Protecting Power grant the protection of civilians.