Deportation, or the removal of a person from one’s home country, is a legal process that can occur after someone has violated immigration laws. It can also occur if someone is found to be a threat to public safety.
When people are deported, it often has a significant ripple effect on the lives of others, including their families. Studies have shown that deportation can cause families to lose their income and reduce family relationships (Capps et al. 2007; Hagan, Castro, & Rodriguez, 2010; Zayas & Bradlee, 2014).
A person can be deported for a number of reasons, including entering the United States illegally and not having the right documents to stay or staying in the United States beyond the time allowed on their visa. Other reasons include showing up to the United States without authorization or committing a crime or other violations of a law in their home country.
Depending on the circumstances of the person’s removal, the process can take months or years to complete. In most cases, the first step is a notice to appear before an immigration judge. This gives the illegal alien the opportunity to request a merits hearing or to appeal the decision to remove them from the U.S.
The court may also ask the individual to sign a form agreeing to be removed from the United States. This can help the process to go faster, but it doesn’t protect the individual from the consequences of being deported.
Once a deportation order is issued, the illegal alien has 30 days to file an appeal with the Board of Immigration Appeals. This can take weeks or months, depending on the complexity of the case and the amount of evidence.
There are also exceptions to the law that allow some people to be exempt from deportation if they have a close relationship with a US citizen or their children are US citizens. These exemptions are limited, however, and can only apply if there is a “hardship” to the family members.
Many immigrants who are deported return to dangerous environments in their homelands and face torture, abuse, rape, or murder. Some of these cases have been documented by researchers working at the Global Migration Project.
During deportation proceedings, many people are separated from their children, who experience emotional and physical distress as a result of their separation. This can lead to negative effects on their mental health and well-being, including anxiety and depression (Capps et al., 2007; Hagan, Castro, & Rodrigues, 2010).
In some cases, parents who are deported are denied the ability to visit their children in the United States. This can have a negative impact on their children’s health and education.
The impact of deportation can be especially severe for families with children. Research has shown that children of immigrants who are deported have higher rates of behavioral and emotional problems than their peers. This can result in a range of social and educational difficulties for the children, which can have lifelong negative impacts on their academic performance and other aspects of their health.